Saturday, 15 October 2011

Deduction and Induction

This link is useful for researchers wanting a quick summary on the difference between deductive and inductive research methods.

Some excerpts (Copyright ©2006, William M.K. Trochim) :

In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach. We might begin with thinking up a theoryabout our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specifichypotheses that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads us to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation (or not) of our original theories.

Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach (please note that it's "bottom up" and not"bottoms up" which is the kind of thing the bartender says to customers when he's trying to close for the night!). In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.

Thursday, 7 July 2011

Stones of Life

For my students, graduating at Strathclyde University: Congratulations!

Sunday, 13 March 2011

CONGRATULATIONS to the winners of the PAM Eco Retreat Competition!
...esp. to Car Rol and Kwee How, it was a pleasure running the design program last sem!

* First Prize (USD1,500) - Lee Car Rol of Taylor's University
* Second Prize (USD750)- Stanley Sim Chin Poh and Jong Si Hong of
Limkokwing University (Borneo Campus)
* Third Prize (USD250)- Lim Ker Chwing, Koh Hern Lit, Chok Kwan
Kin and Teoh Jin Yong of Taylor's University


5 Merits (USD100)

* Loo Jie Hsin and Teoh Lee Moi of UPM
* Lim Gim Huang and Lee Woan Wei of UTM
* Chua Kwee How of Taylor's University
* Beta Chan of Limkokwing University
* Eddy Erwan bin Abu Bakar Shamsidin and Lee Joon Kien of
Limkokwing University